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The tropical Rainforest


Tropen 02
Source: wikipedia.org

Characterisation

Locationon both sides of the equator, mostly up to the 10° latitude
min. Precipitationminimum 1800 - 2000 mm (9 - 12 humid months).
Soilsmost nutrient-poor soils in the world.

Humid tropical climate

The humid tropical climate is characterised by season-long  precipitation, which is particularly intensive during the so called rain season in the spring and in the autumn (when the sun stands directly above the equator).
The rainy season lasts at least ten months per year and creates a humid climate, in which more water falls than can evaporate. Nevertheless, a substantial quantity of the water evaporates again rapidly, also by the foliage of the vegetation, so that the rain forest contributes to the precipitation by this strong evaporation. The amount of precipitation lies between 2000 and 4000 mm per year; on mountain-slopes, which are exposed to the wind, also more than 6000 mm can be reached (by the comparison: the Black Forest in Germany receives 1200 mm per year).
During the different seasons, the temperature in the humid tropics changes only very slightly: The daily maximum temperature during the warmest month reaches usually approx. 28 - 31 °C, in the coolest month approx. 24 °C. Also the fluctuations of the average yearly temperatures from year to year are only between 0.3 and 0.6 °C. Only the differences between the day and night temperatures are somewhat more pronouncedly: the fluctuation reaches 5 to 10 °C.
Because of the absence of seasons which are clearly distinguishable by temperature, with no vegetation breaks, the climate of the humid tropical areas ( rain forests) are also time called "daytime climate" as opposed to "seasonal" climate.

Amazon

Example: Manaus - the capital of the state of Amazonas

Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

Being close to the equator (3 ° southern latitude) there is only a small seasonal  changes in the day length. There are only two seasons , a longer rainy and a shorter dry season. The climate is hot all year round. At night, the air humidity reaches at least 95% and it is also often very high during the day, so that the air temperature is perceived as even warmer than actual: it almost always "muggy".
During the rainy season from December to May, strong thundershowers occur almost daily. The amount of precipitation per year reaches 2000 millimetres, the triple of an average amount in Central Europe. The average temperatures of each month of the year vary only very slightly between 26 and 28 °C. The maximum temperatures mostly lie between 28 and 35 °C, while at night temperatures fall to minima between 20 and 30 °C. This results in monthly averages between 26 and 28°C. The lowest recorded tempeture was 13°C.
meteogram
meteogram:
Manaus (-3.11°N / -60.03°E)
Meteogram AIR
Meteogram AIR:
Manaus (-3.11°N / -60.03°E)

Lloró, Colombia

Lloró is close to the equator (5° Northern latitude) on the west flank of the Andes. It is one of the places with the highest yearly precipitation total - more than 13'000 millimetres (13 meters!) of rain fall per year.
meteogram
meteogram:
Lloró (5.50°N / -76.53°E)

Debundja, Cameroon

Debundja, Cameroon, is situated on the West Coast of Cameroon, about 450 Km north of the equator (4.12° Northern latitude) at the feet of 4040 meter Mount Cameroon. This massive mountain blocks the clouds coming in from the ocean and increases precipitation, especially on the western flank. Yearly precipitation totals recorded at Debundja are 9'100 millimetres (9.1 meters!) of rain fall per year as average over 30 years.
meteogram
meteogram:
Debundja (4.12°N / 8.98°E)